Android Privacy Report

This paper by Prof Doug Leith shows how great and terrible Android can be for the privacy of its users.

paper: [archive]

We find that, with the notable exception of e/OS, even when minimally configured and the handset is idle these vendor-customized Android variants transmit substantial amounts of information to the OS developer and also to third-parties (Google, Microsoft, LinkedIn, Facebook etc) that have pre-installed system apps.
Prof Doug Leith. Doug Leith. (n.d.). Retrieved August 2, 2022, from

It should be noted that, GApps were installed along with Lineage OS for this research. Lineage OS does NOT include Google services by default.


I used and recommend both Lineage OS and eOS. I continue to use eOS on my personal phone, OnePlus 6. Unlike in the paper, I used Lineage OS without GApps in the past, therefore without Google background services.

I am new at citing research papers. It is possible that I have made a mistake while for the citation in above quotation. If you find a mistake, please correct me, send a comment email maybe.


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This article was updated on 3 Aug 2022